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A Jesus Who is The Light
Sermon Discussion

Opening Question: Have you ever warned someone or been warned by someone about a dangerous situation that was about to happen? What was the response or outcome?

Observation questions:
*Anything stand out? What are some questions this text raises in your mind?

*This week we are looking at some of Jesus’ teachings. What’s going on in this situation? What's the context? Who are these teachings directed towards?

*What is Jesus’ demeanor in this passage? How would you describe his choice of words?

*What are some of the warnings Jesus gives in this passage?

Interpretation questions:
*Why does Jesus call the eye “the lamp of the body?” (An eye that is healthy describes a spiritually healthy way of looking at things. A bad eye, or evil way of looking at things, results in a life full of moral and spiritual darkness.)

*Why do you think Jesus addresses the people the way that He does? What would be your response if someone spoke to you this way?

*Why does Jesus say that it’s what’s on the inside that matters?

*Verse 46 says that the lawyers hold the people to higher standards than the scripture makes necessary and then do nothing to help them actually fulfill those things. Why is this dangerous? (teaches moralism and they aren’t shepherding and caring for the people God has entrusted to them)

Application:
*What are some of the ways in which you look at things that needs an adjustment?

*Living in the world of social media can be tough. There’s a constant pressure to have it all together, or at least seem like you do. What are some ways that you struggle with trying to appear like you have it all together? (vulnerability begets vulnerability here)

*What are some areas in your life that you need the “light of Christ” to shine in?

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This week pastor Duane touched on how the sin of pride can pervade every aspect of our spiritual lives. Here is an excerpt from C.S. Lewis' book Mere Christianity expounding on the subject. 


 

The vice I am talking of is Pride or Self-Conceit: and the virtue opposite to it, in Christian morals, is called Humility. You may remember, when I was talking about sexual morality, I warned you that the centre of Christian morals did not lie there. Well, now, we have come to the centre. According to Christian teachers, the essential vice, the utmost evil, is Pride. Unchastity, anger, greed, drunkenness, and all that, are mere fleabites in comparison: it was through Pride that the devil became the devil: Pride leads to every other vice: it is the complete anti-God state of mind.

Does this seem to you exaggerated? If so, think it over. I pointed out a moment ago that the more pride one had, the more one disliked pride in others. In fact, if you want to find out how proud you are the easiest way is to ask yourself, ‘How much do I dislike it when other people snub me, or refuse to take any notice of me, or shove their oar in, or patronise me, or show off?’ The point is that each person’s pride is in competition with every one else’s pride. It is because I wanted to be the big noise at the party that I am so annoyed at someone else being the big noise. Two of a trade never agree. Now what you want to get clear is that Pride is essentially competitive—is competitive by its very nature—while the other vices are competitive only, so to speak, by accident.

Pride gets no pleasure out of having something, only out of having more of it than the next man. We say that people are proud of being rich, or clever, or good-looking, but they are not. They are proud of being richer, or cleverer, or better-looking than others. If everyone else became equally rich, or clever, or good-looking there would be nothing to be proud about. It is the comparison that makes you proud: the pleasure of being above the rest. Once the element of competition has gone, pride has gone. That is why I say that Pride is essentially competitive in a way the other vices are not. The sexual impulse may drive two men into competition if they both want the same girl. But that is only by accident; they might just as likely have wanted two different girls. But a proud man will take your girl from you, not because he wants her, but just to prove to himself that he is a better man than you. Greed may drive men into competition if there is not enough to go round; but the proud man, even when he has got more than he can possibly want, will try to get still more just to assert his power. Nearly all those evils in the world which people put down to greed or selfishness are really far more the result of Pride.

 

Parenting is a wonderful, fun, challenging, and at times frustrating thing. It is a great honor and responsibility that God has given us children and He has given us plenty of help in the Bible on how to do that well.  

The Resolved Church pastors care a lot about our kids and the parents who are raising them, so we took time out on a Saturday to walk through the Bible’s teaching on parenting centering on four “C’s”: 

Connection, Consistency, Correction, and Compassion.

If you were not present for the training, would you please take some time out to watch each of the sessions? We believe they will not only be helpful but will reap long-term benefits in your home.

Love,

Pastor Duane 

 

 

 

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MIRACLES
C.S. Lewis

Below is an excerpt from C. S. Lewis' book entitled Miracles. Here he describes in very poetic terms the most glorious miracles of existence. The incarnation, life, death, and resurrection of Jesus. 


In the Christian story, God descends to reascend. He comes down; down from the heights of absolute being into time and space, down into humanity; down further still, if embryologists are right, to recapitulate in the womb ancient and pre-human phases of life; down to the very roots and seabed of the Nature He has created. But He goes down to come up again and bring the whole ruined world up with Him. One has the picture of a strong man stooping lower and lower to get himself underneath some great complicated burden. He must stoop in order to lift, he must almost disappear under the load before he incredibly straightens his back and marches off with the whole mass swaying on his shoulders. Or one may think of a diver, first reducing himself to nakedness, then glancing in mid-air, then gone with a splash, vanished, rushing down through green and warm water into black and cold water, down through increasing pressure into the death-like region of ooze and slime and old decay; then up again, back to colour and light, his lungs almost bursting, till suddenly he breaks surface again, holding in his hand the dripping, precious thing that he went down to recover. He and it are both coloured now that they have come up into the light: down below, where it lay colourless in the dark, he lost his colour too. In this descent and reascent everyone will recognise a familiar pattern: a thing written all over the world. It is the pattern of all vegetable life. It must belittle itself into something hard, small and deathlike, it must fall into the ground: thence the new life reascends. It is the pattern of all animal generation too. There is descent from the full and perfect organisms into the spermatozoon and ovum, and in the dark womb a life at first inferior in kind to that of the species which is being reproduced: then the slow ascent to the perfect embryo, to the living, conscious baby, and finally to the adult. So it is also in our moral and emotional life. The first innocent and spontaneous desires have to submit to the deathlike process of control or total denial: but from that there is a reascent to fully formed character in which the strength of the original material all operates but in a new way. Death and Rebirth—go down to go up—it is the key principle.

 

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A Jesus Who is the Greatest
Sermon Discussion
[Luke 11:27-32]

Who comes to mind when you think of the greatest person who has ever lived? Why?

I. Seeking Signs
-Jesus is the greatest because He gives us life.
-How do you define success? Why?
-Jesus was succeeding by the worlds definition; yet seemed not to care about that. He seemed more concerned about why they were following Him. The crowds were seeking signs, and Jesus condemned them as evil. Why do you think He said this?
-Why do you think we tend to be fascinated by the supernatural and the fantastic?
-Jesus didn’t want to have people desire what He could do, but He Himself. What Jesus did was to point to relationship with Himself. Why might this be hard to accept or live out in our lives?
-How do we tend to fall into this trap in modern Christianity today? How do you find yourself falling into this trap?

II. Seeking the Son
-Jesus brings up 3 key people: Solomon, the Queen of Sheba, and Jonah. What do you think Jesus is doing by referring to these people? What is Jesus trying to communicate here?
-How does Jesus want us to seek Him?
-Jesus is greater than King Solomon. What do we look to in this world for wisdom or riches?
-Jesus is greater than Jonah. What do you look to in this world to save you and to help you in life? The resurrection of Jesus is the proof of Jesus being the Son of God and the true savior of mankind. It is that which sets us apart from the rest of the world. How does the resurrection give us life? How does it give us hope in the midst of life?
-The resurrection is the true sign of Jonah

III. Seeking a Savior
-Why does Jesus bring up the reality of the coming judgement for those who reject the sign that Jesus gives us of resurrection?
-What comes to mind when you read about Gods judgement? What is this meant for us to do in us?
-Who are we to seek for salvation from this coming judgment?
-How does the reminder of this judgement push us toward relationship with Christ?

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WHAT IS IT TO BE REFORMED?
by Pastor Duane Smets

For some, to be "reformed" means to be a part of a church or denomination that subscribes to a certain creed, like the Three Forms of Unity or the Westminster Confession or the London Baptist Confession.  For others, to be "reformed" is more a statement about one's particular theological convictions.  Those distinctions can at times be helpful and at others be a hindrance.  The word's origin actually has its roots in Christian history.  

To Be Part of the Reformation Heritage
The Reformation was a historical movement of the church during the 16th century which resulted in the Protestant form of the Christian faith. To be reformed is to happily consider oneself as part of that historical tradition and the principles it recovered and emphasized. Here are a few good resources:

Reformation: A History by Patrick Collinson
The Unquenchable Flame by Michael Reeves
Why the Reformation Still Matters by Michael Reeves & Tim Chester

To Be A Fan of the Reformers
The Reformation happened because of the leadership of a few key figures, who ended up leaving a rich legacy of life and doctrine. Those who consider themselves to be reformed greatly appreciate these men, looking to them as godly examples (Heb 13:7) and making much use of their theological writings. These men chiefly include: Martin Luther (and his student Philip Melanchthon), John Calvin (and his student Theodore Beza), John Knox, and Thomas Cramner.

To Follow Reformed Doctrine
The Reformation highlighted key essential beliefs of Christianity. To be reformed means one follows and closely adheres to the doctrines the Reformation emphasized. These things include a conviction that salvation is by grace alone, through faith alone, in the person and work of Christ alone, revealed in Scripture alone, all for the glory of God alone. These "five alones" are popularly known as the "five solas".  It's a God-centered orientation which cherishes the truths of election and predestination as being critical to the Christian faith.

Tim Challies wrote a great piece showing the place of Reformed doctrine within Christian theology and how it compares with other ideas and movements: Reformed: A Definition.

Reformed creeds, like the Three Forms of Unity, the Westminster Confession or the London Baptist confession essentially provide a clearly articulated rallying base for the principles of reformed doctrine.  There are others but those three are the most well known and most subscribed to.

To Be Always Reforming
To be Reformed is not only a past tense reference but an ongoing present reality. Those who subscribe to reformed doctrine believe that remaining sin is a present ongoing reality for Christians (the doctrine of total depravity) for which the gospel is designed to address. Thus to be Reformed means that a person's heart and life is in a process of ongoing personal reformation. 

To be reformed then means to consider oneself as part of the historical movement of the Reformation, to subscribe the main theological tenants of The Reformation AND to be a person who endeavors to ever change and grow into the likeness of Christ.

For further study, R.C. Sproul has written a great book titled What is Reformed Theology.

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Delighting in the Trinity
Michael Reeves

"Why is God love? BECAUSE GOD IS A TRINITY.
Why can we be saved? BECAUSE GOD IS A TRINITY.
How are we able to live the Christian life? THROUGH THE TRINITY."


God is love": those three words could hardly be more bouncy. They seem lively, lovely and as warming as a crackling fire. But "God is a Trinity"? No, hardly the same effect: that just sounds cold and stodgy. All quite understandable, but the aim of this book is to stop the madness. Yes, the Trinity can be presented as a fusty and irrelevant dogma, but the truth is that God is love because God is a Trinity.

For it is only when you grasp what it means for God to be a Trinity that you really sense the beauty, the overflowing kindness, the heart-grabbing loveliness of God. If the Trinity were something we could shave off God, we would not be relieving him of some irksome weight; we would be shearing him of precisely what is so delightful about him. For God is triune, and it is as triune that he is so good and desirable. 

Christianity is not primarily about lifestyle change; it is about knowing God. To know and grow to enjoy him is what we are saved for. Nonetheless, getting to know God better does actually make for far more profound and practical change as well. Knowing the love of is the very thing that makes us loving. Sensing the desirability of God alters our preferences and inclinations, the things that drive our behavior: we begin to want God more than anything else. 

The triune nature of this God affects everything from how we listen to music to how we pray: it makes for happier marriages, warmer dealings with others, better church life; it gives Christians assurance, shapes holiness and transforms the very way we look at the world around us. No exaggeration: the knowledge of this God turns lives around.

Excerpt from Delighting in the Trinity by Michael Reeves

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Demon Possession

If you want to read a good book on Demon Possession, this is hands down the most thorough and sound book I know of. It is the result of a symposium on the subject, with contributing chapters from a range of well-educated scholars, edited by John Warwick Montgomery. You’ll walk away from this book with a widespread knowledge and exposure to a host of issues associated with Demon Possession including but not limited to: psychology, psychosis, paranormal studies, medical analysis, philosophical probability, historical perspective, theological and biblical data and numerous case documentations. Below is a brief excerpt from the book.

- Pastor Duane


 

Satan is the author of all that is destructive. The Christian's heritage is to be in the process of becoming whole, being conformed into the image of Christ. At what point in sin or suffering one crosses some line where he is now under demonic influence that can be relieved only by a special ministry of deliverance is very unclear. The Hippocratic injunction for physicians to do no harm should be considered very carefully by those who are engaged in deliverance. There is no doubt in my mind that Christians in the mental health field need to become more aware of the fact that we do fight a spiritual warfare and specific prayers for deliverance are in order in certain cases. However, it may well be that a person who confesses and repents of sin, who places himself under the lordship of Jesus Christ, praying for healing with prayer support from a Christian group, blocks demonic activity without even being aware of it. One thing is certain: We have an enemy who is a liar, deceiver, destroyer; but we have the victory in Jesus Christ, the God of Scripture.

Excerpt from Demon Possession 

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A Jesus Who is Strong
Sermon Discussion
Luke 11:14-26

Read the passage to refresh your memory.

-What is strength? When you think of someone who is strong, who comes to mind? Why? Why are we drawn to strength?

I. Superior Power
-In the passage we see that Jesus casts out a demon. How is He able to do that?
-What does Jesus' actions against the demon teach us about His view of evil and how we as His followers are to view it?
-How is Jesus' ways of casting out demons different/superior than those of the day?
-What are things in our culture that we view as evil today? How does the gospel help us to respond to it?
-Where do you need Jesus power in your life today?

II. Superior Logic
-Jesus has supreme logic and demonstrates that in how He responds to the crowd. He demonstrates all knowledge, being an attribute of the Divine. How does it make you feel to know that Jesus knows every thought before we ever think it?
-Why is it a comfort that Jesus, the Supreme Power, knows all things and knows all things in our life?
-Jesus cares about how we think, as well as how we live. How can Jesus transform our minds and thinking?

III. Superior Grace
-Jesus really desires that people hear His message and respond to it by faith. When we receive His message, we are given the Holy Spirit who makes our soul His home and we abide in Him.
-Jesus gathers and longs to gather us unto Himself, safe in His arms. What do you look to in your life to make you feel safe? Why is Jesus better than that?
-Where do you need Jesus' strong arms if grace in your life today?

IV. Pray for one another!

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The Prayer of Prayers

Tim Keller

The Danger of Familiarity
The Lord’s Prayer may be the single set of words spoken more often than any other in the history of the world. Jesus Christ gave it to us as the key to unlock all the riches of prayer. Yet it is an untapped resource, partially because it is so very familiar.

Imagine you are, for the first time, visiting someone who has a home or an apartment near train tracks. You are sitting there in conversation, when suddenly the train comes roaring by, just a few feet from where you are sitting, and you jump to your feet in alarm. “What’s that?” you cry. Your friend, the resident of the house, responds, “What was what?” You answer, “That sound! I thought something was coming through the wall.” “Oh, that,” she says. “That’s just the train. You know, I guess I’ve gotten so used to it that I don’t even notice it anymore.” With wide eyes you say, “I don’t see how that is possible.” But it is.

It is the same with the Lord’s Prayer. The whole world is starving for spiritual experience, and Jesus gives us the means to it in a few words. Jesus is saying, as it were, “Wouldn’t you like to be able to come face-to-face with the Father and king of the universe every day, to pour out your heart to him, and to sense him listening to and listening to and loving you?” We say, of course, yes. Jesus responds, “It’s all in the Lord’s Prayer,” and we say, “In the what?” It’s so familiar we can no longer hear it. Yet everything we need is within it. How do we overcome the deadly peril of familiarity? One of the best ways is to listen to these three great mentors, who plumbed the depths of the prayer through years of reflection and practice. What did they believe the Lord’s Prayer to be saying?

“Our Father Who Art in Heaven”
This is called the address, not actually one of the petitions. Calvin explains that to call God “Father” is to pray in Jesus’ name. “Who would break forth into such rashness as to claim for himself the honor of a son of God unless we had been adopted as children of grace in Christ?” Luther also believed the address was a call to not plunge right into talking to God but to first recollect our situation and realize our standing in Christ before we proceed into prayer. We are to say to God, “You have taught us to regard you and call upon you as one Father of us all . . . although . . . you could rightly and properly be a severe judge over us.” Therefore, we should start by asking God to “implant in our hearts a comforting trust in your fatherly love.” Calvin agrees that “by the great sweetness of this name [Father] he frees us from all distrust.”

“Hallowed Be Thy Name”
This first petition is somewhat opaque to contemporary English speakers. One reason is that the word hallowed is seldom used today, and another is that the idea of holiness (the basic meaning of the older English word hallowed) is alien in our secularized society. The third is a seeming problem of logic, expressed by Luther. “What are we praying for when we ask that His name become holy? Is it not holy already?” He immediately answers that of course it is holy, but that “in our use of it his name is not kept holy.” Luther points to the fact that all baptized Christians have God’s name put upon them. As name bearers they represent a good and holy God, and so we are praying that God keep us from dishonoring the name by which we are called, that he would empower us to become ourselves good and holy. This petition, however, has a second meaning for Luther, who joins Augustine when he says it is a prayer that God “be glorified among all nations as you are glorified among us.” It is a request that faith in God would spread throughout the world, that Christians would honor God with the Christ-likeness or holiness of their lives, and that more and more people would honor God and call on his name.

Calvin agrees but adds a thought that goes deep into the heart. “What is more unworthy than for God’s glory to be obscured partly by our ungratefulness?” In other words, ingratitude and an indifferent attitude toward God fails to honor his name. To “hallow” God’s name is not merely to live righteous lives but to have a heart of grateful joy toward God—and even more, a wondrous sense of his beauty. We do not revere his name unless he “captivate[s] us with wonderment for him.”

“Thy Kingdom Come”
Augustine says God is reigning now, but just as a light is absent to those refusing to open their eyes, so it is possible to refuse God’s rule. This is the cause of all our human problems, since we were created to serve him, and when we serve other things in God’s place, all spiritual, psychological, cultural, and even material problems ensue. Therefore, we need his kingdom to “come.” Calvin believed there were two ways God’s kingdom comes—through the Spirit, who “corrects our desires,” and through the Word of God, which “shapes our thoughts.” This, then, is a “Lordship” petition: It is asking God to extend his royal power over every part of our lives—emotions, desires, thoughts, and commitments. It is reminiscent of Thomas Cranmer’s “collect” for the fourteenth Sunday after Trinity, “that we may obtain that which thou dost promise, make us to love that which thou dost command.” We are asking God to so fully rule us that we want to obey him with all our hearts and with joy. Luther adds also an outward and a future dimension. The reign of God on earth is only partial now, but the fullness of the future kingdom is unimaginable. All suffering, injustice, poverty, and death will be ended. To pray “thy kingdom come” is to “yearn for that future life” of justice and peace, and to ask that “your future kingdom may be the end and consummation of the kingdom you have begun in us.”

“Thy Will Be Done”
Luther is the most vivid and forthright about the meaning of the third petition. He paraphrases like this: “Grant us grace to bear willingly all sorts of sickness, poverty, disgrace, suffering, and adversity and to recognize that in this your divine will is crucifying our will.” We may be reticent to make such a bold statement, but now we can discern the importance of the initial address. Unless we are profoundly certain God is our Father, we will never be able to say “thy will be done.” Fathers are often inscrutable to little children. A four-year-old cannot understand many of his father’s prohibitions—but he trusts him. Only if we trust God as Father can we ask for grace to bear our troubles with patience and grace. Well, someone asks, how can we be sure God is trustworthy? The answer is that this is the one part of the Lord’s Prayer Jesus himself prayed in the Garden of Gethsemane, under circumstances far more crushing than any of us will ever face. He submitted to his Father’s will rather than following his own desires, and it saved us. That’s why we can trust him. Jesus is not asking us to do anything for him that he hasn’t already done for us, under conditions of difficulty beyond our comprehension. Luther adds, following Augustine, that without this trust in God, we will try to take God’s place and seek revenge on those who have harmed us. We will be protected “from the horrible vices of character assassination, slander, backbiting . . . condemning others” only if we learn to commit ourselves to God. If we can’t say “thy will be done” from the bottom of our hearts, we will never know any peace. We will feel compelled to try to control people and control our environment and make things the way we believe they ought to be. Yet to control life like this is beyond our abilities, and we will just dash ourselves upon the rocks. This is why Calvin adds that to pray “thy will be done” is to submit not only our wills to God but even our

Well, someone asks, how can we be sure God is trustworthy? The answer is that this is the one part of the Lord’s Prayer Jesus himself prayed in the Garden of Gethsemane, under circumstances far more crushing than any of us will ever face. He submitted to his Father’s will rather than following his own desires, and it saved us. That’s why we can trust him. Jesus is not asking us to do anything for him that he hasn’t already done for us, under conditions of difficulty beyond our comprehension. Luther adds, following Augustine, that without this trust in God, we will try to take God’s place and seek revenge on those who have harmed us. We will be protected “from the horrible vices of character assassination, slander, backbiting . . . condemning others” only if we learn to commit ourselves to God. If we can’t say “thy will be done” from the bottom of our hearts, we will never know any peace. We will feel compelled to try to control people and control our environment and make things the way we believe they ought to be. Yet to control life like this is beyond our abilities, and we will just dash ourselves upon the rocks. This is why Calvin adds that to pray “thy will be done” is to submit not only our wills to God but even our

Luther adds, following Augustine, that without this trust in God, we will try to take God’s place and seek revenge on those who have harmed us. We will be protected “from the horrible vices of character assassination, slander, backbiting . . . condemning others” only if we learn to commit ourselves to God. If we can’t say “thy will be done” from the bottom of our hearts, we will never know any peace. We will feel compelled to try to control people and control our environment and make things the way we believe they ought to be. Yet to control life like this is beyond our abilities, and we will just dash ourselves upon the rocks. This is why Calvin adds that to pray “thy will be done” is to submit not only our wills to God but even our feelings, so that we do not become despondent, bitter, and hardened by the things that befall us. We have considered the first three petitions of the Lord’s Prayer. All our teachers observe the significance of their place in the order—that these petitions come first in prayer. The beginning of prayer is all about God. We are not to let our own needs and issues dominate prayer; rather, we are to give pride of place to praising and honoring him, to yearning to see his greatness and to see it acknowledged everywhere, and to aspiring to full love and obedience. George Herbert expressed it with beautiful economy:

For my heart’s desire
Unto Thine is bent:
I aspire
To a full consent.

Adoration and thanksgiving—God-centeredness—comes first, because it heals the heart of its self-centeredness, which curves us in on ourselves and distorts all our vision. Now that the prayer is nearly half over, and our vision is reframed and clarified by the greatness of God, we can turn to our own needs and those of the world.

“Give Us This Day Our Daily Bread”
Augustine reminds us that “daily bread” is a metaphor for necessities rather than luxuries. Since we have just spent the first three petitions of prayer recognizing God as our true food, wealth, and happiness, Jesus is charging us to now bring our “prayer list” of needs into line with this new frame of heart. As we have seen, Augustine believes the full petition should be Proverbs 30: 8, “Give me neither poverty (lest I resent you) or riches (lest I forget you).” Calvin follows Augustine’s reasoning when he says that, in speaking of our daily bread, “we do not . . . bid farewell to God’s glory . . . [but we] ask only what is expedient for him.” We come with our needs expectant of positive response, but we do so changed by our satisfaction in him and our trust of him. We do not come arrogantly and anxiously telling him what has to happen. Many things we would have otherwise agonized over, we can now ask for without desperation.

Luther sees a social dimension to this prayer as well. For all to get daily bread, there must be a thriving economy, good employment, and a just society. Therefore, to pray “give us—all the people of our land—daily bread” is to pray against “wanton exploitation” in business, trade, and labor, which “crushes the poor and deprives them of their daily bread.” Ominously he warns those who do injustice about the power of this petition. “Let them beware of . . . the intercession of the church, and let them take care that this petition of the Lord’s Prayer does not turn against them.” For Luther, then, to pray for our daily bread is to pray for a prosperous and just social order.

“Forgive Us Our Debts as We Forgive Our Debtors”
The fifth petition concerns our relationships, both with God and others. Luther, who for years struggled mightily and personally with the issues of guilt and pardon, gives a clarion call to seek God’s forgiveness every day in prayer:

If anyone insists on his own goodness and despises others . . . let him look into himself when this petition confronts him. He will find he is no better than others and that in the presence of God everyone must duck his head and come into the joy of forgiveness only through the low door of humility.

Luther adds that this petition is not only a challenge to our pride but a test of spiritual reality. If we find confession and repentance intolerably traumatic or demeaning, it means “the heart is not right with God and cannot draw . . . confidence from his Gospel.” If regular confession does not produce an increased confidence and joy in your life, then you do not understand the salvation by grace, the essence of the faith.

Jesus tightly links our relationship with God to our relationship with others. It works two ways. If we have not seen our sin and sought radical forgiveness from God, we will be unable to forgive and to seek the good of those who have wronged us. So unresolved bitterness is a sign that we are not right with God. It also means that if we are holding a grudge, we should see the hypocrisy of seeking forgiveness from God for sins of our own. Calvin puts it vividly:

If we retain feelings of hatred in our hearts, if we plot revenge and ponder any occasion to cause harm, and even if we do not try to get back into our enemies’ good graces, by every sort of good office deserve well of them, and commend ourselves to them, by this prayer we entreat God not to forgive our sins.

“Lead Us Not into Temptation”
With this petition Augustine makes an important distinction. He says, “The prayer is not that we should not be tempted, but that we should not be brought [or led] into temptation.” Temptation in the sense of being tried and tested is not only inevitable but desirable. The Bible talks of suffering and difficulty as a furnace in which many impurities of soul are “burned off” and we come to greater self-knowledge, humility, durability, faith, and love. However, to “enter into temptation,” as Jesus termed it (Matt 26: 41), is to entertain and consider the prospect of giving in to sin. Calvin lists two categories of temptations from the “right” and from the “left.” From the right comes “riches, power, and honors,” which tempt us into the sin of thinking we do not need God. From the left comes “poverty, disgrace, contempt, and afflictions,” which tempt us to despair, to lose all hope, and to become angrily estranged from God. Both prosperity and adversity, then, are sore tests, and each one brings its own set of enticements away from trusting in God and toward centering your life on yourself and on “inordinate desires" for other things.

“Deliver Us from Evil”
Calvin combined this phrase with “lead us not into temptation” and called it the sixth and last petition. Augustine and Luther, however, viewed “deliver us from evil” as a separate, seventh petition. It can also be translated “deliver us from the Evil One,” that is, the devil. Luther writes that this petition is “directed against specific evils that emanate from the devil’s kingdom . . . poverty, dishonor, death, in short . . . everything that threatens our bodily welfare.” Augustine indicates that while the sixth petition is for deliverance from the remaining evil inside us, this seventh petition is for protection from evil outside us, from malignant forces in the world, especially our enemies who wish to do us harm.

“For Thine Is the Kingdom, the Power, and the Glory Forever”
Finally, there is what is called the ascription: “For thine is the kingdom, the power, and the glory, forever. Amen.” Augustine does not mention it because it was not in most earlier manuscripts of the Bible or in the Latin Vulgate. Luther does not treat it. However, Calvin, while noting that “this is not extant in the Latin versions,” believes that “it is so appropriate to this place that it ought not to be omitted.” After descending into our needs, troubles, and limitations, we return to the truth of God’s complete sufficiency. Here our hearts can end with “tranquil repose” in the remembrance that nothing can ever snatch away the kingdom, power, and glory from our heavenly, loving Father.

“Give, Forgive, and Deliver—Us”
The concluding remarks on the Lord’s Prayer by John Calvin are especially helpful. Like Luther in A Simple Way to Pray, Calvin insists that the Lord’s Prayer does not bind us to its particular form of words but rather to its content and basic pattern. Indeed, even Luke does not set down Jesus’ teaching on prayer in exactly the same words. The Lord’s Prayer is a summary of all other prayers, providing essential guidance on emphasis and topics, on purpose and even spirit. Therefore in our prayers, “the words may be utterly different, yet the sense ought not to vary.” The Lord’s Prayer must stamp itself on our prayers, shaping them all the way down. There could be no better way to ensure that than Luther’s twice-daily exercise of paraphrasing and personalizing the Lord’s Prayer as introduction to more free-form praise and petition. An equally important insight is a reminder that the Lord’s Prayer was given to us in plural form. We ask God to give us what we need, meaning that, as much as possible, “the prayers of Christians ought to be public . . . to the advancement of the believer’s fellowship.” American theologian Michael S. Horton has pointed out that Calvin believed “public ministry shapes private devotion, not vice versa.” Calvin took great care to define public prayers and the liturgy because he wanted private prayers to be strongly shaped by the corporate worship of the Christian church. Prayer is therefore not a strictly private thing. As much as we can, we should pray with others both formally in gathered worship and informally. Why? If the substance of prayer is to continue a conversation with God, and if the purpose of it is to know God better, then this can happen best in

An equally important insight is a reminder that the Lord’s Prayer was given to us in plural form. We ask God to give us what we need, meaning that, as much as possible, “the prayers of Christians ought to be public . . . to the advancement of the believer’s fellowship.” American theologian Michael S. Horton has pointed out that Calvin believed “public ministry shapes private devotion, not vice versa.” Calvin took great care to define public prayers and the liturgy because he wanted private prayers to be strongly shaped by the corporate worship of the Christian church.

Prayer is therefore not a strictly private thing. As much as we can, we should pray with others both formally in gathered worship and informally. Why? If the substance of prayer is to continue a conversation with God, and if the purpose of it is to know God better, then this can happen best in community. C. S. Lewis argues that it takes a community of people to get to know an individual person. Reflecting on his own friendships, he observed that some aspects of one of his friend’s personality were brought out only through interaction with a second friend. That meant if he lost the second friend, he lost the part of his first friend that was otherwise invisible. “By myself I am not large enough to call the whole man into activity; I want other lights than my own to show all his facets.” If it takes a community to know an ordinary human being, how much more necessary would it be to get to know Jesus alongside others? By praying with friends, you will be able to hear and see facets of Jesus that you have not yet perceived.

That is why, Lewis thinks, that the angels in Isaiah 6 are crying, “Holy, Holy, Holy” to one another. Each angel is communicating to all the rest the part of the glory it sees. Knowing the Lord is communal and cumulative, we must pray and praise together. That way “the more we share the Heavenly Bread between us, the more we shall all have.”

 

This blog is taken from Chapter 8 of Tim Keller's Prayer: Experiencing Awe & Intimacy with God and is one of our favorite books on this subject!